Various Types of Diets Given Free of Cost to Patients in Government Hospitals in Tamil Nadu

STD : Standard Diet
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Par boiled rice Morning 90
2 Par boiled rice Lunch 125
3 Raw Rice 75
4 rava 75
5 Wheat Flour 75
6 Toor dhal Morning 25
7 Toor dhal Lunch 25
8 Black gram dhal Morning 30
9 Black gram dhal Seasoning 1
10 Greengram dhal Morning 25
11 Greengram dhal Night 10
12 Sundal 30
13 Salt 15
14 Tamarind 7
15 red chillies 5
16 Curry powder 7
17 Cumin seeds 1
18 Pepper 1
19 Mustard 1
20 Fenugreek Seasoning 0.5
21 Fenugreek seeds Morning 0.75
22 Asafoetida 0.1
23 Turmeric 1
24 Garlic 1
25 Groundnut Oil 20
26 Milk Morning 250
27 Curd ml 200
28 Fruit nos 1
29 Vegetable Lunch 100
30 Potato Lunch 100
31 Vegetable Night 100
32 Greens 100
33 Onion 50
34 Tomato 50
35 Carrot 25
36 Beans 25
37 Ginger pongal 1
38 Ginger kitchedi 1
39 Curry & corriander leaves 2
40 Green chillies 2



PPD : Post Partum Diet : After Delivery
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Par boiled rice Morning 90
2 Par boiled rice Lunch 125
3 Raw Rice 75
4 rava 75
5 Wheat Flour 75
6 Toor dhal Morning 25
7 Toor dhal Lunch 25
8 Black gram dhal Morning 30
9 Black gram dhal Seasoning 1
10 Greengram dhal Morning 25
11 Greengram dhal Night 10
12 Sundal 30
13 Salt 15
14 Tamarind 7
15 red chillies 5
16 Curry powder 5
17 Cumin seeds 1
18 Pepper 1
19 Mustard 1
20 Fenugreek Seasoning 0.5
21 Fenugreek seeds Morning 0.75
22 Asafoetida 0.1
23 Turmeric 1
24 Garlic 1
25 Groundnut Oil 20
26 Jaggary 25
27 Milk Morning 250
28 Milk Evening 250
29 Curd ml 200
30 Potato Lunch 100
31 Egg nos 1
32 Fruit nos 1
33 Vegetable/Potato Lunch 100
34 Vegetable Night 100
35 Greens 200
36 Onion 60
37 Tomato 60
38 Carrot 25
39 Beans 25
40 Ginger pongal 1
41 Ginger kitchedi 1
42 Curry & corriander leaves 2
43 Green chillies 2

 

NCD : Non Communicable Disease Diet
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Par boiled rice Morning 90
2 Par boiled rice Lunch 75
3 Wheat/Samba Rava Morning 75
4 Wheat/Samba Rava Night 75
5 Wheat Flour Lunch 75
6 wheat flour Night 75
7 Toor dhal Morning 25
8 Black gram dhal Morning 30
9 Black gram dhal Seasoning 1
10 Roasted bengal gram 30
11 Sundal 30
12 Salt 5
13 Tamarind 7
14 red chillies 5
15 Curry powder 7
16 Garam masala powder
17 Cumin seeds 2
18 Pepper 2
19 Mustard 1
20 Fenugreek Seasoning 0.5
21 Fenugreek seeds Morning 0.75
22 Asafoetida 0.1
23 Turmeric 1
24 Garlic 1
25 Groundnut Oil 15
26 Milk Morning 150
27 Milk Evening 100
28 Curd ml 200
29 Egg nos 2
30 Potato Lunch 100
31 Vegetable Soup 50
32 Vegetable Lunch 100
33 Vegetable Night 150
34 Greens 200
35 Onion 75
36 Tomato 75
37 Cucumber 100
38 Ginger – kitchedi 1
39 Curry & corriander leaves 2
40 Green chillies 2



New case : For Patients who are admitted recently
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Bread 200
2 Milk 200

 

HPD : High Protein Diet
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Par boiled rice Morning 90
2 Par boiled rice Lunch 150
3 Raw Rice 75
4 rava 100
5 Wheat Flour 100
6 Toor dhal Morning 25
7 Toor dhal Lunch 25
8 Black gram dhal Morning 30
9 Black gram dhal Seasoning 1
10 Greengram dhal Morning 25
11 Greengram dhal Night 10
12 Roasted bengal gram 50
13 Sundal 50
14 Salt 15
15 Tamarind 7
16 red chillies 5
17 Curry powder 7
18 Cumin seeds 1
19 Pepper 1
20 Mustard 1
21 Fenugreek Seasoning 0.5
22 Fenugreek seeds Morning 0.75
23 Asafoetida 0.1
24 Turmeric 1
25 Garlic 1
26 Goundnut Oil 20
27 Jaggary 10
28 Nutrimix Kanji powder 15
29 Milk Morning 250
30 Milk Evening 250
31 Curd ml 200
32 Egg nos 2
33 Fruit nos 1
34 Vegetable Lunch 100
35 Vegetable Night 100
36 Greens 100
37 Onion 50
38 Tomato 50
39 Carrot 25
40 Beans 25
41 Coconut 20
42 Ginger – pongal 1
43 Ginger – kitchedi 1
44 Curry & corriander leaves 2
45 Green chillies 2
46 Lime 0.25

 

HIV :
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Par boiled rice Morning 90
2 Par boiled rice Lunch 150
3 Raw Rice 75
4 rava 100
5 Wheat Flour 100
6 Sago 25
7 Processed soya flour 15
8 Toor dhal Morning 25
9 Toor dhal Lunch 25
10 Black gram dhal Morning 30
11 Black gram dhal Seasoning 1
12 Greengram dhal Morning 25
13 Greengram dhal Night 10
14 Roasted bengal gram 50
15 Sundal 50
16 Salt 15
17 Tamarind 7
18 red chillies 5
19 Curry powder 7
20 Cumin seeds 1
21 Pepper 1
22 Mustard 1
23 Fenugreek Seasoning 0.5
24 Fenugreek seeds Morning 0.75
25 Asafoetida 0.1
26 Turmeric 1
27 Garlic 1
28 Goundnut Oil 20
29 Jaggary 10
30 Nutrimix Kanji powder 15
31 Milk Morning 250
32 Curd ml 200
33 Egg nos 2
34 Fruit nos 1
35 Vegetable Lunch 100
36 Vegetable Night 100
37 Greens 100
38 Onion 50
39 Tomato 50
40 Carrot 250
41 Beans 25
42 Ginger – pongal 1
43 Ginger – kitchedi 1
44 Curry & corriander leaves 2
45 Green chillies 2
46 Lime 0.25

 

RENAL
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Par boiled rice Night 60
2 Par boiled rice Lunch 75
3 Rice Rava 75
4 Vermicelli 75
5 Sago 30
6 Sago – evening 30
7 Sweet Biscuit 3
8 Black gram dhal 20
9 Fenugreek – Seasoning 0.5
10 Goundnut Oil 15
11 Sugar 25
12 Sugar – night 25
13 Curd ml 200
14 Egg nos 1
15 Bread Morning 100
16 Bread evening 50
17 Renal Vegetable Lunch 200
18 Renal Vegetable Night 200
19 Mint 15
20 Onion 25
21 Cucumber 200
22 Guava 100

 

 

RENAL DIABETIC
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Par boiled rice Night 60
2 Par boiled rice Lunch 75
3 Rice Rava 75
4 Vermicelli 75
5 Sago 30
6 Sago – evening 30
7 Biscuit 3
8 Black gram dhal 20
9 Fenugreek – Seasoning 0.5
10 Goundnut Oil 15
11 Curd ml 200
12 Egg nos 1
13 Bread Morning 100
14 Bread evening 50
15 Renal Vegetable Lunch 200
16 Renal Vegetable Night 200
17 Mint 15
18 Onion chutney 100
19 Onion 25
20 Cucumber 200
21 Guava 100

 

 

AC SPL : For those with Ryles Tube Feeding
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Rice flour 70
2 Sago flour 30
3 Green gram dhal 40
4 Salt 3
5 Goundnut Oil 20
6 Sugar 50
7 Milk 500
8 Curd ml 200
9 Egg nos 2
10 Oranges/Sweet lime 4
11 Vegetable Soup 50
12 Greens 50
13 Enteral supplement 50

 

 

AC SPL RENAL : For those with Ryles Tube Feeding
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Rice flour 70
2 Sago flour 60
3 Salt 1
4 Goundnut Oil 20
5 Sugar 50
6 Milk 500
7 Curd ml 200
8 Egg nos 2
9 Vegetable Soup 50
10 Enteral supplement 50

 

 

AC SPL BURNS : For those with Ryles Tube Feeding
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Rice flour 70
2 Sago flour 30
3 Green gram dhal 40
4 Salt 3
5 Goundnut Oil 20
6 Sugar 75
7 Milk 750
8 Egg nos 3
9 Vegetable Soup 100
10 Greens 100
11 Enteral supplement 100
12 Oranges/Sweet lime 4

 

RCD : Radiotheraphy Chemotherapy Diet
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Sago/Rice flour 50
2 Sugar 40
3 Milk – Morning 250
4 Milk – Evening 250
5 Curd ml 200
6 Egg nos 2
7 Oranges/Sweet lime 8

 

RCD DIABETIC : Radiotherapy Chemotherapy
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Sago/Rice flour 50
2 Milk – Morning 250
3 Milk – Evening 250
4 Curd ml 200
5 Egg nos 2
6 Oranges/Sweet lime 8

 

M&B : Milk and Bread
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Milk – Morning 500
2 Milk – Evening 250
3 Curd ml 0
4 Egg nos 1
5 Fruit nos 2
6 Bread 400

 

INF : 0 to 6 months
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Greengram dhal 10
2 Salt 2
3 Coconut oil 25
4 Jaggary 20
5 Nutrimix Kanji powder 12.5
6 Milk morning 250
7 Milk evening 250
8 Egg nos 1
9 Plantain 1
10 Potato 50

 

 

INF – SPL : 6 to 12 months
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Rice flour 25
2 Sago flour 20
3 Roasted bengal gram flour 25
4 Coconut oil 25
5 Curd ml 200

 

 

C-STD 1-8yrs
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Par boiled rice Morning 30
2 Par boiled rice lunch 50
3 Par boiled rice Night 60
4 Raw Rice Night 75
5 Toor dhal Morning 12.5
6 Toor dhal Lunch 12.5
7 Black gram dhal Morning 10
8 Black gram dhal Night 20
9 Black gram dhal Seasoning 1
10 Greengram dhal Night 25
11 Salt 6
12 Tamarind 5
13 red chillies 5
14 Curry powder 5
15 Garam masala powder 0.5
16 Cumin seeds 1
17 Pepper 1
18 Mustard 1
19 Fenugreek seeds Seasoning 0.5
20 Fenugreek seeds Morning 0.25
21 Fenugreek seeds Night 0.5
22 Asafoetida 0.1
23 Diet Scale 1
24 Garlic 0.5
25 Goundnut Oil 15
26 Jaggary 8
27 Nutrimix Kanji powder 5
28 Milk 250
29 Curd ml 100
30 Egg nos 1
31 Fruit nos 1
32 Vegetable/Potato lunch 100
33 Potato lunch 100
34 Vegetable Night 50
35 Greens 100
36 Onion 25
37 Tomato 25
38 Coconut 20
39 Ginger – pongal 1
40 Curry and corriander leaves 2

 

 

C-STD 8-12yrs
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Par boiled rice Morning 60
2 Par boiled rice lunch 75
3 Par boiled rice Night 90
4 Raw Rice Night 100
5 Toor dhal Morning 12.5
6 Toor dhal Lunch 25
7 Black gram dhal Morning 20
8 Black gram dhal Night 30
9 Black gram dhal Seasoning 1
10 Greengram dhal Night 30
11 Salt 6
12 Tamarind 5
13 red chillies 5
14 Curry powder 5
15 Garam masala powder 0.5
16 Cumin seeds 1
17 Pepper 1
18 Mustard 1
19 Fenugreek seeds Seasoning 0.5
20 Fenugreek seeds Morning 0.5
21 Fenugreek seeds Night 0.75
22 Asafoetida 0.1
23 Turmeric 1
24 Garlic 0.5
25 Goundnut Oil 15
26 Jaggary 10
27 Nutrimix Kanji powder 6
28 Milk 250
29 Curd ml 100
30 Egg nos 1
31 Fruit nos 1
32 Vegetable lunch 100
33 Potato lunch 100
34 Vegetable Night 50
35 Greens 100
36 Onion 30
37 Tomato 30
38 Coconut 20
39 Ginger – pongal 1
40 Curry and corriander leaves 2

 

C-HIV-STD 1-8yrs
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Par boiled rice Morning 30
2 Par boiled rice lunch 50
3 Par boiled rice Night 60
4 Raw Rice Night 75
5 Sago 20
6 Toor dhal Morning 12.5
7 Toor dhal Lunch 12.5
8 Black gram dhal Morning 10
9 Black gram dhal Night 20
10 Black gram dhal Seasoning 1
11 Greengram dhal Night 25
12 Salt 6
13 Tamarind 5
14 red chillies 5
15 Curry powder 5
16 Garam masala powder 0.5
17 Cumin seeds 1
18 Pepper 1
19 Mustard 1
20 Fenugreek seeds Seasoning 0.5
21 Fenugreek seeds Morning 0.25
22 Fenugreek seeds Night 0.5
23 Asafoetida 0.1
24 Turmeric 1
25 Garlic 0.5
26 Goundnut Oil 15
27 Jaggary 12
28 Nutrimix/Ragi Kanji powder 7.5
29 Milk 250
30 Curd ml 100
31 Egg nos 2
32 Fruit nos 2
33 Vegetable lunch 100
34 Potato lunch 100
35 Vegetable Night 50
36 Greens 100
37 Onion 25
38 Tomato 25
39 Coconut 20
40 Ginger – pongal 1
41 Curry and corriander leaves 2



C-HIV-STD 8-12yrs
S.No Ingredient Sub-clause Quantity
1 Par boiled rice Morning 60
2 Par boiled rice lunch 75
3 Par boiled rice Night 90
4 Raw Rice Night 100
5 Sago 20
6 Toor dhal Morning 12.5
7 Toor dhal Lunch 25
8 Black gram dhal Morning 20
9 Black gram dhal Night 30
10 Black gram dhal Seasoning 1
11 Greengram dhal Night 30
12 Salt 6
13 Tamarind 5
14 red chillies 5
15 Curry powder 5
16 Garam masala powder 0.5
17 Cumin seeds 1
18 Pepper 1
19 Mustard 1
20 Fenugreek seeds Seasoning 0.5
21 Fenugreek seeds Morning 0.5
22 Fenugreek seeds Night 0.75
23 Asafoetida 0.1
24 Turmeric 1
25 Garlic 0.5
26 Goundnut Oil 15
27 Jaggary 12
28 Nutrimix/Ragi Kanji powder 7.5
29 Milk 250
30 Curd ml 100
31 Egg nos 2
32 Fruit nos 2
33 Vegetable lunch 100
34 Potato lunch 100
35 Vegetable Night 50
36 Greens 100
37 Onion 30
38 Tomato 30
39 Coconut 20
40 Ginger – pongal 1
41 Curry and corriander leaves 2

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Neurochemistry of Shopping : Spendthrift and Misers : Addiction and Impulsive Buying

The Neurochemistry of Shopping or Why Few are addicted to Shopping all the time (Spendthrifts) and why every one likes shopping once in a while (except misers)

Let us See How Shopping makes you happy and Why some spend more in shopping and land up in debt while others are stingy

-oOo-

Shopping means getting possession of a new article
From Time Immemorial humans wanted possessions.
So
When you are going to get a New Article your brain is going to be happy
And
When it is something which you are going to use everyday, the happiness is even more

Your Brain is a complex Structure and has lots of parts

For Today’s topic of interest, let us focus on three areas

  1. Nucleus Accumbens
  2. Insula
  3. Pre Frontal Cortex




-oOo-

Nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum)
Nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum)

The nucleus accumbens is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus and is one of the reward centres of the brain.

It is active when the individual feels pleasure. In the 1950s, James Olds and Peter Milner implanted electrodes into the septal area of the rat and found that the rat chose to press a lever which stimulated it. It continued to prefer this even over stopping to eat or drink.

Coming Back to our topic, Shopping is Buying things and that is getting something for you and this is a pleasurable activity. Hence When you plan to buy something or when you buy something, this area of the brain is more active.

-oOo-

In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex (also insula and insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus (the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes).
In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex (also insula and insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus (the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes).

The Next Area of interest is Insula. it is located deep inside the brain in between frontal lobes and temporal lobes. It has many functions. The insulae are believed to be involved in consciousness and play a role in diverse functions usually linked to emotion or the regulation of the body’s homeostasis. These functions include compassion and empathy, perception, motor control, self-awareness, cognitive functioning, and interpersonal experience. In relation to these, it is involved in psychopathology.

The functions of interest to us is its role in pain experience and the experience of a number of basic emotions, including anger, fear, disgust, happiness, and sadness.



-oOo-

 The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

The Third Area of Interest is the Prefrontal Cortex. This brain region has been implicated in planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behaviour.

The most typical psychological term for functions carried out by the prefrontal cortex area is executive function. Executive function relates to abilities to differentiate among conflicting thoughts, determine good and bad, better and best, same and different, future consequences of current activities, working toward a defined goal, prediction of outcomes, expectation based on actions, and social “control” (the ability to suppress urges that, if not suppressed, could lead to socially unacceptable outcomes).

Frontal cortex supports concrete rule learning. More anterior regions along the rostro-caudal axis of frontal cortex support rule learning at higher levels of abstraction

-oOo-

Now Let us see what happens when you see an iMac or Blackberry or a Large Screen TV or a Car or a Dress. Upon Seeing it you want to buy it and “have possession of it” This is a pleasant feeling and your Nucleus Accumbens gets activated. Simultaneously, your Prefrontal Lobe calculates the cost of the iMac / Blackberry / Car / Dress and gives the information that “When you get this new object, you need to give money (from purse or bank account)” While Getting things is a pleasurable activity, giving away things is a painful activity. Immediately Your Insula activates upon the pain for losing money.

So
Nucleus Accumbens shouts, pleades, smiles, nudges on one side while Insula gets angry, cries, shouts, blames on the other side and your prefrontal cortex is the judge (aka Nattamai) between these two

-oOo-

Nattamai
Strong Nattamai controls the panchayat. Strong PreFrontal Cortex allows the purchase

Now comes the most important point. Most People have a good prefrontal cortex. This Prefrontal Cortex does complex Calculations. It first asks whether the object is really needed and whether there will be recurring expenses (eg Petrol and Service for Car) with this. It then finds whether there is enough money left in purse or bank after buying it.  And when Everything is OK, it says “Go Ahead” and Subdues the Insula and Nucleus Accumbens is more active for the next few hours to days to even weeks and the person is happy and elated. This is how Shopping makes one happy and gives a pleasant feeling.

Nattamai PreFrontal Cortex Stops the Purchase
Strong Nattamai controls the panchayat. Strong PreFrontal Cortex Stops the Purchase

Suppose the Object is really not needed or if there is not enough money with the individual, Prefrontal Cortex asks to Stop and subdues the nucleus Accumbens and the individual is a bit sad for minutes to hours to days to weeks depending on the individual.



-oOo-

Weak Nattamai leads to one party having upper hand Weak Prefrontal Cortex leads to Insula or Nucleus Accumbens having Upper hand
Weak Nattamai leads to one party having upper hand
Weak Prefrontal Cortex leads to Insula or Nucleus Accumbens having Upper hand

But some people do not have a good prefrontal cortex. That is the nattamai here is unable to exert his force and one of the parties coming for panchayat is able to confuse the nattamai and get away with his strength

So, what happens when the individual’s Prefrontal Cortex is Weak. In this case, either the Nucleus Accumbens or the Insula takes upper hand (depending on which is inherently stronger)

Weak Nattamai leads to one party having upper hand and individual is either spendthrift or miser
Weak Nattamai leads to one party having upper hand and individual is either spendthrift or miser
  • If the Nucleus Accumbens is inherently Stronger with weak Prefrontal Cortex, the individual is unable to control is spending. He goes on buying more – can be even impulsive buying – and even buys with loans and credit cards and even buys things for which he has rare or infrequent usage. These people end up as Spendthrift
  • If the Insula is inherently stronger with weak Prefrontal Cortex, the individual does not even spend for essential items and ends up as a Miser.  A Son asked his father “Dad, who is a miser”. Dad replied “one who does not show money to his family”. Son Asked “Dad, what  is money” . . . .. This dad probably had over acting insula with weak prefrontal cortex and weak nucleus accumbens

-oOo-

NB

  1. The article is from a class I took to students recently. The Title can be (1) Neurochemistry of Shopping (2) Physiology of Spendthrift and Misers (3) Psychology of Addiction and Impulsive Buying. However the best title is “Use of Cinema to keep young medicos engaged during Post Lunch Classes”
  2.  I have over simplified the functions of the lobes. Happiness or for that matter any emotion is handled by multiple areas and Insula or for that matter and area has multiple Functions.